Eating less meat is more Islamic

Joseph Mayton as presented at http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/belief/2010/aug/26/meat-islam-vegetarianism-ramadan

The Qu’ran reminds us animals and birds are ‘communities like you’. So why do so many Muslims break their fast with meat?

For most of the billion-plus Muslims who sit down each evening to break their Ramadan fast, meat will be on the menu. Lots of it. But how Islamic is eating meat?

Not very, according to Sheikh Hamza Yusuf, who argues that historically Muslims ate so little meat they were almost vegetarian. “Meat is not a necessity in sharia, and in the old days most Muslims used to eat meat – if they were wealthy, like middle class – once a week on Friday. If they were poor – on the Eids.”

In today’s world, meat-eating has taken on a new fervour, with many Muslims demanding animal flesh as part of their daily diet. Just the other day, an Egyptian journalist was relating to me how he attended a dinner at a local organisation here in Cairo. When people arrived, questions began to fly across the hall: “Where is the meat? We aren’t going to have enough for everyone.”

According to a recent study by the Egyptian cabinet’s Information and Decision Support Centre, 89% of Egyptians eat more than 2kg of meat monthly. This figure rises along with social class. The study revealed that wealthy Egyptians often consume more than 8kg of meat each month.

The prophet Muhammad was not an advocate of daily meat-eating. Instead, the Islamic Concern website says, he warned his followers against constant meat consumption as it could become “addictive”. It seems that 1,500 years later his concerns are not being heeded.

Early Islamic leaders and scholars repeatedly emphasised that animals were to be cherished and treated in a humane manner, but many Muslims nowadays view animals as the dominion of people. A sheikh at the Egyptian ministry of religious endowments told me: “Animals are slaves for human purposes. They were put here for us to eat, so talk of vegetarianism is un-Islamic.”

This statement by the ministry official goes against everything the prophet stood for, in the opinion of Gamal al-Banna, a prominent Islamic scholar who has come under attack in recent years for his “liberal” stance. Al-Banna told me that being a vegetarian and Muslim does not break any tradition and is in no way un-Islamic.

“When someone becomes vegetarian they do so for a number of reasons: compassion, environment and health reasons,” he began. “As a Muslim, I believe that the prophet would want the followers to be healthy, compassionate and not destroy our environment. If someone believes not eating meat is that way, it is not like they are going to go to hell for it. It may be the right thing to do.”

Al-Banna continued, when I asked him about the Eid al-Adha sacrifice (which many argue is obligatory), that any Muslim who believes in being vegetarian does not have to slaughter a sheep. “In today’s modern world, ideas and religion change and Islam is no different. We must not remain rigid in our understanding of faith to mean the blind acceptance of anything, killing living beings included. There is no obligation to kill.”

Others disagree, arguing that meat-eating is part of the Islamic tradition and, thus, vegetarianism is a foreign notion for the Middle East. Muslims who eat meat at every iftar (fast-breaking evening meal) this month undoubtedly believe they are doing the right thing. On the other hand, the idea that animals are merely slaves to humans is not only abhorrent to animal-rights advocates, but seems to be at odds with the prophet’s teaching.

Some would argue that the prayer said before halal slaughtering is part of Islam’s humanity when animals are killed for food. This may have been true historically, but in today’s “halal” slaughterhouses, a pre-recorded prayer often blares nonstop as the animals are lined up and killed. That is a cop-out from what Islam teaches about “humane” slaughter.

Ultimately, the argument is simple. The Qur’an reveals that all living animals are sentient beings, just as human beings are.

“There is not an animal on earth, nor a bird that flies on its wings – but they are communities like you.” (Qur’an, 6:38)

The Sunnah and Health

[This following article is based on a lecture given by Shaykh Hamza Yusuf Hanson in London, England. It was previously published in the Muslim Word—a monthly newsletter in Toronto—in the May, 1998 issue. This current version includes a new introduction, several additions, and has been edited.]

وَڪَذَٲلِكَ بَعَثۡنَـٰهُمۡ لِيَتَسَآءَلُواْ بَيۡنَہُمۡ‌ۚ قَالَ قَآٮِٕلٌ۬ مِّنۡہُمۡ ڪَمۡ لَبِثۡتُمۡ‌ۖ قَالُواْ لَبِثۡنَا يَوۡمًا أَوۡ بَعۡضَ يَوۡمٍ۬‌ۚ قَالُواْ رَبُّكُمۡ أَعۡلَمُ بِمَا لَبِثۡتُمۡ فَٱبۡعَثُوٓاْ أَحَدَڪُم بِوَرِقِكُمۡ هَـٰذِهِۦۤ إِلَى ٱلۡمَدِينَةِ فَلۡيَنظُرۡ أَيُّہَآ أَزۡكَىٰ طَعَامً۬ا فَلۡيَأۡتِڪُم بِرِزۡقٍ۬ مِّنۡهُ وَلۡيَتَلَطَّفۡ وَلَا يُشۡعِرَنَّ بِڪُمۡ أَحَدً

We raised them up from their sleep so that they might question one another. A speaker from among them said, ‘How long have you tarried?’ They said, ‘We have tarried a day or part of a day.’ Another said, ‘Your Lord best knoweth what you have tarried.’ Now send one of you with this sliver coin into the city, and let him see (yanzuru) what food (ta’aama) is purest (azkaa) and bring you nourishment (rizq) from it. And let him be courteous in order not to inform others about his presence” (Qur’an 18:19).

Food is the foundation of our material existence. During our life in the womb we were sustained materially by our mother’s nourishment through the umbilicus. We left the wombs and the umbilicus was severed to begin another stage of nourishment, the breast. Upon being weaned, we began to eat foods of various textures and tastes, acquiring lifelong preferences during this stage, some good, and others bad. There is a relationship between food and language that is quite revealing. Our metaphors are often derived from our necessary relationship with food. We talk about sweet talk and bitter words, being hungry for love and thirsty for knowledge, of the “milk of human kindness” and “one man’s meat being another’s poison.” When speaking of the need for change, we say things like, “I need to wean myself from this,” or “I’m going to abstain from vain talk.” All of our metaphors that relate to food and drink, hunger and satiety, indicate the central role that food plays in our lives and how profound its experience is to us.

Few people think of the relationship that food has to their health. Before we speak about food, let us ask the question “what is health?” Most people believe that health is an overall state of well-being, the absence of pain, and the relative vitality of the body.

A physician will give a person a “clean bill of health,” with almost no understanding of the overall state of the person as a spiritual, intellectual, emotional and physical being. Each of these dimensions has a healthy status and an unhealthy one. For most people, spiritual health is given almost no consideration. If one goes to Church every Sunday, or the Synagogue on Saturday or the Mosque on Friday, given the respective faith, he or she may consider themselves spiritually well. Little attention is paid to the spiritual heart’s diseases such as greed, covetousness, pride, envy, vanity, arrogance and anxiety. All of these are symptoms of pronounced spiritual disease. When mental health is considered, people tend to focus on emotional health and not intellectual health. However, can we call a man who spends his days developing more sophisticated ways of killing people for the government, healthy? If a man develops napalm with his intellectual gifts and finds out that Vietcong villagers are building lakes so that when the napalm is dropped and their skin begins to burn from the assault they can flee to the lake and submerge themselves in the water thus preventing serious burns, which causes that same man to enhance his napalm by making it insoluble in water so that people can no longer find relief from the pain by immersing themselves in water. Is that man healthy intellectually? When people consider their emotional states they rarely see subtleties in their overall emotional health. If they are not depressed or grief-stricken and their overall mood is balanced they feel emotionally healthy. They might be surprised at the idea of lack of concern for others less fortunate than they are being an emotional disease resulting from a lack of compassion; or that excessive love of money, not greed but actual emotional attachment to one’s wealth, whereby if the stock market goes down, I have an emotional downturn also, is a sign of serious emotional disease.

People often believe that because they are fine at a given moment they think that they are generally well. But we must realize that when disease is dormant, and the right circumstances can cause a flare-up, one is still considered suffering from a disease, chronic and dormant perhaps, but still disease. There are those also who believe their bodies are physically well in the absence of pain and yet hypertension, which is often undetectable without medical tests, is one of the major causes of midlife mortality in America. What then is health? When is a person healthy?

The Latin word for health is Sanitas, which is where we get our word sanity, i.e. well-being of the mind. The Romans had a phrase sans mensus; sans corpus: a healthy mind in a healthy body. The Arabs call health sihhat from a root meaning “to be sound or strong, a sahih hadith is a healthy hadith that has no ‘ilal or diseases, as is known from the Islamic science of prophetic traditions. A “healthy” hadith had to have five qualities before it was determined to be sound by the doctors of the hadith science. If any were lacking then the hadith was determined to be “sick.” Depending upon the number of criteria missing, the hadith was: very weak, weak, or in “good health” but not excellent. If we look to the human, what criteria would we use to determine the health of that person?

In Islam, health is actually not seen to be of the body, but rather the state of the heart. There is a hadith in which the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “There is a lump of flesh in the body, if it is sound the whole body is sound. Is it indeed the heart.” He was not talking primarily of the physical body or the physical heart but of the spiritual body and the spiritual heart. A man can be suffering from a terrible disease and considered to be in excellent health in Islam, while another can be in perfect bodily health but determined to be sick according to the Qur’an. In fact, a hallmark of hypocrites is the excellent appearance of their bodies, “Their outward forms are pleasing to you.” But the Qur’an says of them, “In their hearts is a disease.” True health is the state of one’s heart with God. The heart is healthy when it is filled with trust, love, charity, compassion, lack of material desire, patience, hope, awe of God, and most importantly, gratitude. It is diseased when filled with suspicion, envy, hatred, anger, pride, anxiety, hopelessness, and ingratitude. But the health of the body is also important and Islam prohibits its neglect for many reasons, the least of which is one does not function well in the world when handicapped by ill health.

What is the role of food in our basic well-being, in the state of the spirit, intellect, emotions and body? Is food only related to the state of ones body and is there a connection between the body and the other integral elements of man? There has been a concern about food from the very early period of Islam. Al-Qushayri in his Risalah says that the Companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) were more concerned about their food than about the night prayer (qiyaamul-layl). The reason being, because if they were eating food that was not good or lawful, there wouldn’t be any night prayer! One of the early generations (salaf) said, “I heard a word of backbiting and as a result of it I was denied the night prayer (tahajjud) for 40 days.”

In relation to food, whenever the Qur’an mentions the word halal, which indicates what is permissible, it mentions tayyib, which means pure, immediately after it. What is meant by permissible and pure is that the food is not simply good to eat but it is a morally sound food, its source was ethically sound. It also has the meaning in the Arabic language of “lawful”, “pure,” “esteemed.” A person who is cheery and of good disposition is called Tayyib. Something that is pure and innocent is also Tayyib. The Prophet’s son, peace be upon them, was known as both Tayyib and Tahir, both meaning pure. Thus, the Qur’an commands us to eat “pure and permissible food.”

Until recently, the majority of food was pure at its most primary level by nature because there was very little that people could do to food to contaminate it. With the resources available today, people change the chemical structures of food, and the study of Dietary Science is a burgeoning field of increasingly serious implications concerning the health of our planet.

Allah warns us not to change His creation but to leave it in its natural state. That’s what fitra means. There is a beautiful hadith in Sahih Muslim in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) passed by a group of people who were pollinating and he thought it was a strange, unnatural practice. The Ansar stopped doing it after the Prophet questioned it and they had a bad crop that year. So they complained to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and he said that they knew better about their worldly matters than he did, for his remark about the pollination, was not based on revelation and was never meant to be. While it was not wahy, his comment is indicative of how he viewed the world, peace and blessings be upon him.

We are all electro-magnetic resonances at the most basic level. We are vibrating at a certain resonance. Food has a resonance and when you eat it, it either nourishes or harms, although the food itself is neutral. If you eat in its right proportions, and if you eat good food, then it is going to be beneficial to the body. The opposite is also true. The worst thing you can do is to completely fill the body with food. In a sahih hadith the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “The worst vessel that the son of Adam can fill is his stomach.” And he also said: “It is enough for the son of Adam to have just morsels (of food) to keep his back upright. But if you have to eat more than that [and everybody thinks this is part of the Sunnah] then one third for food, one third for water, and one third for air.”

The Sunnah is to consume enough morsels to keep our backs straight, while filling one third of the stomach with food, one third air and one third with water, is the dispensation (rukhsa) given to us by the Prophet (peace be upon him). At the same time, we know that the Prophet (peace be upon him) did not encourage asceticism and he did not like going to extremes.

Imam Busayri said, in this regard, “it may be that too little food is worse than too much food.” This is because the nature of the nafs is such that the excessive extreme is safer than the deficient extreme. A diabetic is not in danger when his sugar levels get high, but he is when it falls precipitously low. An overeater can go on for a long time but someone who under eats can eat into serious health problems very quickly. So Imam Busayri is saying that those of excessive zuhd (doing-without) are worse than people who are indulgent, because the former can end up killing themselves.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) never liked pointing out people’s mistakes publicly but there are a few examples when he did. There is a very interesting hadith where the Prophet said to a man with a large stomach: “Had this been on somebody else it would have been better for you.” Meaning that the food you are wasting by overeating would be better if someone else was eating it.

In the Kitab Al-Raqaa’iq of Ibn Mubarak, Sayyiduna ‘Umar sees Yazid making tawaf around the Ka’bah and his stomach was coming out over his loin cloth (izaar), so he took his stick and lifted his devotional cover (ihram) saying: “Is this the stomach of a little kafir?” ‘Umar was making a reference to the well-known sahih hadith, which says that the kafir eats from seven intestines and the believer eats from one. The circumstance of the hadith is that a man came to the Prophet (peace be upon him) to learn about Islam, so the Companions brought him some milk and he drank seven bowls. The next day he came and took shahadah and the Prophet offered him milk again and this time he only drank one bowl. The Prophet (peace be upon him) then asked him if he wanted more and he said that he was now full. The meaning of this is that the kafir’s appetite for the dunya is more than the true mu’min.

Food is our essential connection with the world. One of the early pious Muslims said that he would prefer to stop eating before he became satiated so that he would be able to perform the night prayer. Prophet and his message, he stayed at the sanctuary of the Ka’bah for one month and he used to only drink the water of zamzam, and he said that he gained weight in that month.

If you look at the diet of the Prophet (peace be upon him) in the Shama’il of Imam At-Tirmidhi, it says that he used to eat barley (sha’eer), which has proven to be the most nutritious of all the grains. He also used to eat dates. However, they did not drink cow’s milk, but rather goat, sheep, and camel’s milk. They also made a type of yogurt, as well as butter (zubda), from it. He liked pumpkin, cucumber, grapes, which came from Ta’if, and he also liked melons. The Arabs would also bring dried fruits from Syria such as apricots, but they were expensive and thus only affordable for the well-to-do.

MEAT

Meat was rarely eaten in the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him). In the language of the age we now live in, the Companions would be considered semi-vegetarian. In those days you had to personally sacrifice an animal before you had meat and so meat was usually only eaten when people were invited somewhere as guests. Meat is a ‘na’eem’ or a “luxury” food. The Arabs call somebody who loves meat or is carnivorous a ‘qarim.’ Once ‘Umar saw a man buying meat everyday in the market and asked him why. He replied that he was so ‘Umar told him that he was afraid that he would become like those who lose all of their good deeds in this world by taking too much na’eem from the dunya. ‘Umar, during his khilafah, prohibited the eating of meat everyday. This is permissible for the Khalifah to do because it is only mubah (permissible) to eat meat everyday.

With this said, it is mentioned that al-Hasan Al-Basri, in his time, used to eat a small amount of meat everyday. But no one has considered this to affect his status as a zahid (one who does without the excesses of dunya). The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Meat is the master of food.” It is like the aristocrat of food. Imam Malik has a chapter called Bab Al-Lahm (The Chapter about Meat) in his collection of hadith entitled the Muwatta. The following are two hadith from this chapter and they are both warnings about eating meat:

1. “Beware of meat because it has an addiction like the addiction of wine.”

To this day, in some parts of Yemen, they call meat “khamr al-mu’mineen” (the wine of the believers). People who eat meat constantly must have meat in their food because they get addicted to its taste or flavor. In many places in the Muslim world, meat was not readily available, and for most, extremely expensive. Do to its cost, most Muslims rarely ate meat and one of the benefits of the Feast of the Sacrifice after Hajj is that poor people get to eat meat for a day.

Another aspect that has changed is refrigeration. In the past, people ate meat that was freshly slaughtered and thus the decomposition was minimal. Now, meat is kept for days, weeks, and even months. Meat consumption is much higher today than it was in the past. Also there is a danger in the unnatural growth hormones and estrogen [a female hormone] used in modern meat production as well as in the dairy industry. Immigrant parents who are of average height are now finding that their children are much taller than them or anyone in their families. Many think it is a good thing and attribute their children’s size to the “good food” they are eating (as if they didn’t get good food back where they came from).

Wherever American beef has gone there has been an increase in the size of the people. This has happened in Japan and in Asian countries such as the Philippines. The average height of an average person is five feet, eight inches. In the Muslim world that’s the average height. If you are six feet and you go on Hajj you will tower over everyone else.

The other hadith in the Muwatta is:

2. ‘Umar used to see someone who buys meat all the time, so he said: “It would be better if you tucked your stomach in a little bit and let other people eat.”
This is a very profound insight from the Second Caliph, ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him. Starvation is very real and one of the tragedies of modern food shortages is directly related to meat production in general and cattle consumption in particular. It takes several pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat and reducing one’s meat consumption is in fact a political act that, if done on large scales, would have excellent benefits for both the environment and the less fortunate.

In the Muslim world today, lamb, rather than beef, is the dominant meat eaten. Lamb was the traditional meat eaten by the Prophet (peace be upon him), although he did sacrifice a cow on the Hajj, which was for his women folk. There is a sahih hadith that says: “The meat of the cow is a disease and its milk is a cure.” Today we are seeing evidence that cow’s meat is the number one reason for cardio-vascular disease. Saturated fats found in animals are the main cause for one’s arteries becoming sclerotic, which leads to strokes and heart attacks. We see that bypass operations are very common for people who have a habit of eating a lot of cow meat. It is tragic because if people would just follow the Sunnah, they would rarely need such common and preventable operations. Allah says, “Eat and drink but not to excess, Allah does not love those who are excessive.” The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “The best of my Ummah are my generation, then the second generation, then the third generation, then they start getting plump.”

In most cases, it is our own appetite (nafs) that leads to heart conditions and we should really only blame ourselves. The body is designed to live over 120 years. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said that the ages of his Ummah would be between 60–70 years. The Prophet passed away when he was 63 and it is said that his stomach was completely flat, that he had only 17 grey hairs in his beard and that he had the strength of 40 men.

The body has rights over us. The right of the body is that it has to be fed properly and it has to be given exercise and rest. The great Imam Al-Ghazali said that the maximum amount of sleep that the body must be given is eight hours. Sleep is nourishment; it is food for the ruh (spirit).

SLEEP

Protein, carbohydrates, and lipids feed the body, while the ruh is fed by the remembrance of Allah (dhikr) and sleep (nawm). Another thing that is notable is that the more dhikr you do the less sleep you need.

If you sleep before midnight (meaning halfway between Maghrib and Fajr), after ‘Isha, then that sleep is worth up to twice as much as the sleep that occurs after midnight. The Sunnah of the Prophet is to go to bed right after ‘Isha, and sleeping after Fajr, before sunrise (shuruq), is considered negative sleep. So, if you slept for two hours it is as if you were deprived of two hours of sleep. It is negative sleep. If you sleep before Zuhr or before ‘Asr, then that is positive sleep and it is worth twice in terms of the rejuvenation of the body. According to Imam As-Suyuti in Tibb An-Nabawi, “Whoever sleeps after ‘Asr and wakes up mad let him blame only himself.”

The Prophet (peace be upon him) used to sleep after Zuhr and he said: “Take an afternoon sleep (qaylula) because Shaitan does not take one.” This practice helps you get up at night for the night prayer (tahajjud). When you take the afternoon rest it literally brings you back to the freshness of the morning. It is like starting the day all over again.

Sickness is not a bad thing because it is a form of taharah for the members of this great Ummah; it is purification. You get sick when your immune system deteriorates. This happens when you don’t give the body its right. You should not consume too much sugar because it will compromise your immune system. Drinking all these sugared drinks is bad for your health.

The Prophet did not drink with meals. If you drink a sugared liquid with a meal then it creates a type of fermentation inside your stomach, especially if you’ve eaten carbohydrates and meat. By drinking a cold fluid you weaken the digestion and put out its “fire.” It is better to drink a warm fluid after your meals.

The Prophet, peace be upon him, taught us how to eat, sleep, and worship. He reminded us that our bodies have a right over us. Only recently have scientists discovered that one’s health in later years is enhanced by a lifelong commitment to certain basic principles including moderation in food, drink, rest, and exercise. Western scientists have also clearly found that people who are in healthy marriages and practice prayer on a regular basis have longer and healthier lives. Islam provides immense guidance in the area of health and hygiene and this is an area sorely neglected among many Muslims today. We should all commit to healthier lifestyles including changing our diets to be more consistent with our beliefs and closer to our beloved Prophet’s practice.

Copied from http://behalal.org/health/islam-and-health/the-sunnah-and-health-by-shaykh-hamza-yusuf-hanson/

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Excerpts from “The Science of Shariah”

The following quotes are taken by a talk delivered by Shaikh Hamza Yusuf entitled “The Science of Shari’ah”.

“Meat is not a necessity in Shari’ah, and in the old days most Muslims used to eat meat, if they were wealthy, like middle class-once a week on Friday. If they were poor-on the Eids.”

“So traditionally Muslims were semi-vegetarians. The Prophet was, I mean, technically, the Prophet (SAWS) was in that category. He was not a meat-eater. Most of his meals did not have meat in them. And the proof of that is clearly in the Muwatta-when Sayyidina Umar says, ‘Beware of meat, because it has an addiction like the addiction of wine.’ And the other hadith in the Muwatta-there is a chapter called ‘Bab al-Laham,’ the chapter of laham, the chapter of meat. Both are from Sayyidina Umar. And Umar, during his khilafa, prohibited people from eating meat two days in a row. He only allowed them to eat [it] every other day. And the khalifa has that right to do that. He did not let people eat meat every day – he saw one man eating meat every day, and he said to him, ‘Every time you get hungry you go out and buy meat? Right? In other words, every time your nafs wants meat, you go out and buy it?’ He said, ‘Yeah, Amir al-Mumineen, ana qaram,’ which in Arabic, ‘qaram’ means ‘I love meat’-he’s a carnivore, he loves meat. And Sayyidina Umar said, ‘It would be better for you to roll up your tummy a little bit so that other people can eat.'”

“Now Umar, if there was a prophet after the Prophet, it would have been Umar. And that is really verging on prophecy, that statement. Because if you study the modern meat industry, you will find out that a lot of the famine in the world is a direct result of the overconsumption of meat in countries like the United States and Canada and Europe, because the amount of grain needed to produce 1 pound of meat, right, is much greater than the amount you need to produce grain itself. And beef in particular-I really recommend Rifkin’s book Beyond Beef. It’s an extraordinary book. And it’s interesting ‘Baqara’ is also a chapter of the Qur’an (‘kill the cow’), because beef-eating societies just have massive impact on the environment, on natural resources, on all these things. And traditionally the Muslims were not cow-eaters, they were sheep and lamb [-eaters] when they did eat meat.” – http://www.organic-halal-meat.com/article/hamza-yusuf.php

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Traditional Islamic diet was semi vegetarian
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Traditionally Muslims were semi-vegetarians.Meat is not a necessity in Shari’ah.Most meals of our Beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) did not have meat in them.Meat was rarely eaten in the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him).In those days you had to personally sacrifice an animal before you had meat and so meat was usually only eaten when people were invited somewhere as guests.There was a companion of Prophet(peace be upon him) who was a vegeterian and our Prophet(peace be upon him) accepted this from him. Once Hazrat ‘Umar(Radiyallahu Anhu) saw a man buying meat everyday in the market and he rebuked him.During caliphate of Hadrat Umar(RA) he prohibited the eating of meat everyday. This is permissible for the Khalifah to do because it is only mubah (permissible) to eat meat everyday.
Imam Malik has a chapter called Bab Al-Lahm (The Chapter about Meat) in his collection of hadith entitled “The Muwatta”. There are two hadith from in that chapter and they are both warnings about eating meat.In the old days most Muslims used to eat meat,like middle class once a week(on Fridays) or if they were poor (on the Eids.)
One of the conditions which Imam Sahl Al-Tustari stipulated, when he took students was that they eat meat only once a week.In Maliki Fiqh a rich woman is entitled to meat twice a week.We now have muslims who are eating meat three times a day and then we wonder why we have so many diseases.In most cases, it is our own appetite (nafs) that leads to heart conditions and we should really only blame ourselves.
Food is the foundation of our material existence.If we eat food in its right proportions, and if we eat good food, then it is going to be beneficial to the body. The opposite is also true. The worst thing you can do is to completely fill the body with food.
The Sunnah is to consume enough morsels to keep our backs straight, while filling one third of the stomach with food, one third air and one third with water, is the dispensation (rukhsa) given to us by the Prophet (peace be upon him). At the same time, we know that the Prophet (peace be upon him) did not encourage asceticism and he did not like going to extremes.We should have moderation in our diets.
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Hadith that shows that our Beloved Prophet(peace be upon him) didn’t eat meat frequently
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Our Beloved Prophet(peace be upon him) was not a frequent meat-eater. Most of his meals did not have meat in them.
This is a muttafaq alaih hadith from Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim which is a proof of this:
Hazrat ‘Urwa related that Hazrat ‘A’isha(Radiyallahu Anha) said to ‘Urwa, “Son of my sister, we used to see three crescent moons in two months without there being a fire lit in the houses of the Messenger of Allah.” He said, “I said, ‘What did you survive on?’ She said, ‘The two black ones – dates and water. However, the Messenger of Allah* had some neighbours of the Ansar who had sheep which were lent to them for milking and they used to give the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, some of their drink and he would let us drink.'”
►{Sahih Bukhari,Kitab Al-Riqaq,Hadith # 6094
Sahih Muslim, Kitab Al-Zuhd wa Al-Raqa’iq, Hadith #7419}
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Ahadith recorded by Imam Malik(RA) that warn about excessive meat consumption
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Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab said, “Beware of meat. It has addictiveness like the addictiveness of wine.”
►{Muwatta Imam Malik,Book about The Description of the Prophet(pbuh),Chapter on Eating Meat}
To this day, in some parts of Yemen, they call meat “khamr al-mu’mineen” (the wine of the believers). People who eat meat constantly must have meat in their food because they get addicted to its taste or flavor. In many places in the Muslim world, meat was not readily available, and for most, extremely expensive. Do to its cost, most Muslims rarely ate meat and one of the benefits of the Feast of the Sacrifice after Hajj is that poor people get to eat meat for a day.
Another aspect that has changed is refrigeration. In the past, people ate meat that was freshly slaughtered and thus the decomposition was minimal. Now, meat is kept for days, weeks, and even months. Meat consumption is much higher today than it was in the past. Also there is a danger in the unnatural growth hormones and estrogen [a female hormone] used in modern meat production as well as in the dairy industry. Immigrant parents who are of average height are now finding that their children are much taller than them or anyone in their families. Many think it is a good thing and attribute their children’s size to the “good food” they are eating (as if they didn’t get good food back where they came from).
Wherever American beef has gone there has been an increase in the size of the people. This has happened in Japan and in Asian countries such as the Philippines. The average height of an average person is five feet, eight inches. In the Muslim world that’s the average height. If you are six feet and you go on Hajj you will tower over everyone else.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab saw Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah carrying some meat. He said, “What is this?” He replied, “Amir al-Muminin, we desired meat and I bought some meat for a dirham.” ‘Umar said, “Does one of you want to fill his belly to the exclusion of his neighbour or nephew? How can you overlook this ayat? ‘You dissipated the good things you had in your worldly life and enjoyed yourself in it.’ (46:20)”
►{Muwatta Imam Malik,Book about The Description of the Prophet(pbuh),Chapter on Eating Meat}
This is a very profound insight from the Second Caliph, ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him. Starvation is very real and one of the tragedies of modern food shortages is directly related to meat production in general and cattle consumption in particular. It takes several pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat and reducing one’s meat consumption is in fact a political act that, if done on large scales, would have excellent benefits for both the environment and the less fortunate.
In the Muslim world today, lamb, rather than beef, is the dominant meat eaten. Lamb was the traditional meat eaten by the Prophet (peace be upon him), although he did sacrifice a cow on the Hajj, which was for his women folk. There is a sahih hadith that says: “The meat of the cow is a disease and its milk is a cure.” Today we are seeing evidence that cow’s meat is the number one reason for cardio-vascular disease. Saturated fats found in animals are the main cause for one’s arteries becoming sclerotic, which leads to strokes and heart attacks. We see that bypass operations are very common for people who have a habit of eating a lot of cow meat. It is tragic because if people would just follow the Sunnah, they would rarely need such common and preventable operations. Allah says, “Eat and drink but not to excess, Allah does not love those who are excessive.” The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “The best of my Ummah are my generation, then the second generation, then the third generation….”
In most cases, it is our own appetite (nafs) that leads to heart conditions and we should really only blame ourselves. The body is designed to live over 120 years. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said that the ages of his Ummah would be between 60–70 years. The Prophet(peace be upon him) passed away when he was 63 and it is said that his stomach was completely flat, that he had only 17 grey hairs in his beard and that he had the strength of 40 men.
The body has rights over us. The right of the body is that it has to be fed properly and it has to be given exercise and rest.
http://www.organic-halal-meat.com/article/hamza-yusuf.php
behalal.org/health/islam-and-health/the-sunnah-and-health-by-shaykh-hamza-yusuf-hanson/
RIS Talks, Canada of shaykh Hamza Yusuf

The Secret to Building a Salad Keyhole Garden

A keyhole garden is a remarkably adaptable element that works in a range of garden styles. Visiting other people’s gardens is a lovely way to peek into their passions and interests. Some gardeners are completely devoted to one type of plant, while others have a set purpose in mind, such as growing and harvesting herbs and vegetables.

I’ve always been a bit of an equal-opportunity gardener: a few veggies, some blooms, and a few foundation trees for structure. But this year I’ve decided to focus my gardening efforts on a new type of themed garden: a salad keyhole garden.

What is a Keyhole Garden?

Raised beds are nothing new. The idea is to elevate the garden to maximize drainage, improve the soil, and enhance access. Keyhole gardens are a riff on that idea, with one addition: a center compost area that works as a self-fertilizing element for the plants. A salad keyhole garden takes it a step further, by planting specific vegetables and herbs together–to be picked at the same time–to create a delicious dish.

What’s most interesting about keyhole gardens is their bountiful history. They began as an invention of charitable organizations to help people in poor countries create a self-sustainable, controllable food source. Considering that the construction of keyhole gardens often utilizes recycled materials – think cast-off tin and upcycled bricks – schools in some of those countries utilize the gardens as a way to both grow nutritious ingredients for school lunches and as a learning tool, for children to take the idea home to their parents. The center compost bin serves a dual purpose: it provides nutrients to the plants and offers a spot for recycling kitchen waste.

One of the biggest attractions of a keyhole garden is its ease of construction. Nearly any material that will withstand the stressors of weather–rock, stone, bricks, metal–will work for the walls. Although there’s no right or wrong height, a keyhole garden typically maxes out at about 6 feet wide, but smaller diameters will work well too. The access notch makes the garden look like a keyhole, and leads to the composting center. That’s often placed on the least sunny side of the bed (usually north), to allow the plants to better capture sun.

Why Should I Use a Keyhole Garden?

Most landscapes pack in a lot of function, sometimes into a very small area. Some gardeners would love a compost bin, for example, but feel they don’t have room or aren’t even sure how to get started. Others may want a raised bed devoted to vegetables or a particular flower type, but aren’t positive how to include it in their yard. A keyhole garden is an easy way to incorporate compost of already used food scraps, while growing new, fresh produce or beautiful flowers.

Many of us (me included) forget to fertilize flowerbeds, or irregularly add an extra layer of compost or mulch to replenish depleted soil. But plants thrive on rich organic materials (i.e. compost) and a keyhole garden does the work for us very busy gardeners. That easy-to-produce compost is like gardener’s gold. On one hand, it gives plants a super-juiced supply of nutrients for optimal growth, and on the other hand it conserves every drop of moisture, which is important for drought-challenged parts of the country.

Because they’re raised, keyhole gardens are also much easier to work in, often enabling maintenance without tiresome bending over. That’s particularly attractive for people with mobility issues or for young children. Keyhole gardens are also incredibly adaptable to a variety of design aesthetics. Traditionalists can add a pretty climbing trellis, while the cottage gardener may opt for a rambling, flowering vine that flows over the keyhole garden’s side.

How is a Keyhole Garden Constructed?

The Anatomy of a Keyhole Garden

Despite all of its function, the setup of a keyhole garden is fairly simple. Using a garden hose, mark out a circle about six feet wide. Then, mark a notch out of the circle roughly a foot wide that narrows slightly toward the center (think of a slice of pizza with a flattened end instead of a point). At the center of the circle, create another smaller circle (about a foot wide): this will be your compost bin.

Next, you’ll need to create the sides of your keyhole garden and give some structure to the center compost bin. We’ll use bricks as an example: Simply alternate the bricks in a dry stack (meaning no mortar necessary), circling around in layers until you reach about waist height.

At the center of the keyhole garden, add the compost basket. Typically this circle is surrounded by a material such as chicken wire and is about one to one-and-a-half feet wide. The goal is to hold the compostable materials in place while allowing for drainage out to the surrounding garden. For added stability, countersink the chicken wire into the ground. The top of the compost basket often extends above the top of the soil in the bed, and some bins use a cap to deflect water into the garden itself. The first few inches of the compost basket’s bottom are filled with drainage materials such as rocks, the rest holds kitchen and yard waste that decomposes and turns into compost.

Although the compost bin is filled with kitchen waste, the planting space of the keyhole garden should be filled with easily biodegradable materials, such as newspaper, shredded old phone books, and cardboard, for example, as well as garden soil. The top of the soil in the planting area should gently slope away from the compost basket to encourage drainage and the movement of compost into the keyhole garden’s growing area.

Overview of a Keyhole Salad Garden

Plants and Planting for a Salad Keyhole Garden

Nearly any plant combination will work in a keyhole garden, but theming the planting is a fun method to try out. For my salad garden, I’m planting a range of crunchy, yummy plants. Some will be ready for early springtime salads, while others will add flavor later in the season. The key plants I’m planning to include are:

  • Lettuce
  • Spinach
  • Arugula and other specialty greens
  • Kale
  • Parsley
  • Chives
  • Radishes
  • Green onions
  • Carrots (to harvest as baby carrots)
  • Cherry tomatoes
  • Nasturtiums

There are two ways of grouping plants in a salad keyhole garden. You can group the individual plants together (all the lettuces, for example) or you can plant taller items at the center of the garden, with lower-growing salad fixings at the front. You’ll need to water well until the plants are established – then sit back, watch your salad keyhole garden grow, and eat the tasty results of your labor.

Source: http://www.fix.com/blog/building-a-salad-keyhole-garden/

Personality Test

PERSONALITY TEST

Choose an icon that speaks to you the most. Don’t think about it too hard. Read the answer below… Let us know what you got!

personality test

1. You are a generous and moral (not to confuse with moralizing) person. You always work on self-improvement. You are very ambitious and have very high standards. People might think that communicating with you is difficult, but for you, it isn’t easy to be who you are. You work very hard but you are not in the least selfish. You work because you want to improve the world. You have a great capacity to love people until they hurt you. But even after they do. . . you keep loving. Very few people can appreciate everything you do as well as you deserve.

2. You are a fun, honest person. You are very responsible and like taking care of others. You believe in putting in an honest day’s work and accept many work-related responsibilities. You have a very good personality and people come to trust you easily. You are bright, witty and fast-thinking. You always have an interesting story to tell.

3.You are a smart and thoughtful person. You are a great thinker. Your thoughts and ideas are the most important. You like to think about your theories and views alone. You are an introvert. You get along with those who likes to think and learn. You spend a lot of time, thinking about morality. You are trying to do what is right, even if the majority of society does not agree with you.

4. You are perceptive and philosophical person. You are a unique, one soul of your kind. Next to you there’s no one even slightly similar to you. You are intuitive and a bit quirky. You are often misunderstood, and it hurts you. You need personal space. Your creativity needs to be developed, it requires respect of others. You are a person who clearly sees the light and dark sides of life. You are very emotional.

5. You are self-assured and in charge. You are very independent. Your guiding principle in life is ‘I’ll do it my way.’. You are very self-reliant and know how to stay strong for yourself and the people you Love. You know exactly what you want and are not afraid of pursuing your dreams. The only thing you demand from people is honesty. You are strong enough to accept the truth.

6. You are kind and sensitive. People relate to you very well. You have many friends and you love helping them. You have this warm and bright aura that makes people feel good when they are around you. Every day, you think about what you can do to improve yourself. You want to be interesting, insightful and unique. More than anybody else in the world, you need to love. You are even ready to love those who don’t love you back.

7. You are happy and unflappable. You are a very sensitive and understanding person. You are a great listener who know how to be non-judgmental. You believe that everybody has their own journey in life. You are open to new people and events. You are highly resistant to stress and rarely worry. Normally, you are very relaxed. You always manage to have a good time and never lose your way.

8. You are charming and energetic. You are a fun person who knows how to make people laugh. You live in a state of harmony with the universe. You are spontaneous and enthusiastic. You never say no to an adventure. Often, you end up surprising and even shocking people. But that’s just how you are. . . You always remain true to yourself. You have many interests and if something proves of interest to you, you will not rest until you acquire a profound knowledge of this area.

9. You are optimistic and lucky. You believe that life is a gift and you try to achieve as much as possible and put this gift to the best use possible. You are very proud of your achievements. You are ready to stick by the people you care about through thick and thin. You have a very healthy approach to life. The glass is (at least) half full for you. You use any opportunity to forgive, learn, and grow because you believe that life is too short to do otherwise.

Tata Cara Menyembelih Kurban yang Ihsan

Saat hari raya idul Adha, tak lengkap rasanya tanpa menyembelih hewan qurban. Kurban (Bahasa Arab: قربن, transliterasi: Qurban), atau disebut juga Udhhiyah atau Dhahiyyah secara harfiah berarti hewan sembelihan. Ritual kurban dilakukan pada bulan Dzulhijjah, yakni pada tanggal 10 (hari nahar) dan 11,12 dan 13 (hari tasyrik) bertepatan dengan Hari Raya Idul Adha.

Dalam sejarah sebagaimana yang disampaikan dalam Al Qur’an terdapat dua peristiwa dilakukannya ritual kurban yakni oleh Habil (Abel) dan Qabil (Cain), putra Nabi Adam ‘alaihis salam, serta pada saat Nabi Ibrahim ‘alaihis salam akan mengorbankan Nabi Ismail ‘alaihis salam atas perintah Allah SWT.

Habil dan Qabil

“ Ceritakanlah kepada mereka kisah kedua putera Adam (Habil dan Qabil) menurut yang sebenarnya, ketika keduanya mempersembahkan kurban, maka diterima dari salah seorang dari mereka berdua (Habil) dan tidak diterima dari yang lain (Qabil). Ia berkata (Qabil): “Aku pasti membunuhmu!”. Berkata Habil: “Sesungguhnya Allah hanya menerima (kurban) dari orang-orang yang bertakwa”. (Al Maaidah: 27) ”

Ibrahim dan Ismail

“ Maka tatkala anak itu sampai (pada umur sanggup) berusaha bersama-sama Ibrahim, Ibrahim berkata: “Hai anakku sesungguhnya aku melihat dalam mimpi bahwa aku menyembelihmu. Maka fikirkanlah apa pendapatmu!” Ia menjawab: “Hai bapakku, kerjakanlah apa yang diperintahkan kepadamu; insya Allah kamu akan mendapatiku termasuk orang-orang yang sabar”. Tatkala keduanya telah berserah diri dan Ibrahim membaringkan anaknya atas pelipis(nya), (nyatalah kesabaran keduanya ), dan Kami panggillah dia: “Hai Ibrahim, sesungguhnya kamu telah membenarkan mimpi itu sesungguhnya demikianlah Kami memberi balasan kepada orang-orang yang berbuat baik. Sesungguhnya ini benar-benar suatu ujian yang nyata, dan Kami tebus anak itu dengan seekor sembelihan yang besar. (Ash Shaaffaat: 102-107)

Dalil tentang Kurban

Al Kautsar ayat 2:

إِنَّآ أَعۡطَيۡنَـٰكَ ٱلۡكَوۡثَرَ (١) فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَٱنۡحَرۡ (٢) إِنَّ شَانِئَكَ هُوَ ٱلۡأَبۡتَرُ (٣)

Maka dirikanlah salat karena Tuhanmu; dan berkurbanlah (anhar)

Nahr [arab: نحر], menyembelih hewan dengan melukai bagian tempat kalung (pangkal leher).

Sementara hadits yang berkaitan dengan kurban antara lain:

  1. “Siapa yang mendapati dirinya dalam keadaan lapang, lalu ia tidak berkurban, maka janganlah ia mendekati tempat salat Ied kami.” HR. Ahmad dan ibn Majah.
  2. Hadits Zaid ibn Arqam, ia berkata atau mereka berkata: “Wahai Rasulullah SAW, apakah kurban itu?” Rasulullah menjawab: “Kurban adalah sunahnya bapak kalian, Nabi Ibrahim.” Mereka menjawab: “Apa keutamaan yang kami akan peroleh dengan kurban itu?” Rasulullah menjawab: “Setiap satu helai rambutnya adalah satu kebaikan.” Mereka menjawab: “Kalau bulu-bulunya?” Rasulullah menjawab: “Setiap satu helai bulunya juga satu kebaikan.” HR. Ahmad dan ibn Majah
  3. “Jika masuk tanggal 10 Dzul Hijjah dan ada salah seorang di antara kalian yang ingin berkurban, maka hendaklah ia tidak cukur atau memotong kukunya.” HR. Muslim
  4. “Kami berkurban bersama Nabi SAW di Hudaibiyah, satu unta untuk tujuh orang, satu sapi untuk tujuh orang. “ HR. Muslim, Abu Daud, Tirmidzi.

Allah berfirman,

وَالْبُدْنَ جَعَلْنَاهَا لَكُم مِّن شَعَائِرِ الله لَكُمْ فِيهَا خَيْرٌ فَاذْكُرُوا اسْمَ الله عَلَيْهَا صَوَافَّ فَإِذَا وَجَبَتْ جُنُوبُهَا فَكُلُوا

Telah Kami jadikan untuk kamu unta-unta itu bagian dari syiar Allah, kamu memperoleh kebaikan yang banyak padanya, maka sebutlah nama Allah ketika kamu menyembelihnya dalam keadaan berdiri (dan telah terikat). Kemudian apabila telah roboh (mati), maka makanlah… (QS. Al Haj: 36)

Ibnu Abbas radhiallahu ‘anhuma menjelaskan ayat di atas, (Untanya) berdiri dengan tiga kaki, sedangkan satu kaki kiri depan diikat. (Tafsir Ibn Katsir untuk ayat ini)

Dari Jabir bin Abdillah radhiallahu ‘anhuma, beliau mengatakan, bahwa Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam dan para sahabat menyembelih unta dengan posisi kaki kiri depan diikat dan berdiri dengan tiga kaki sisanya. (HR. Abu Dawud).

Dzabh [arab: ذبح], menyembelih hewan dengan melukai bagian leher paling atas (ujung leher). Ini cara menyembelih umumnya binatang, seperti kambing, ayam, dst.

Pada bagian ini kita akan membahas tata cara Dzabh, karena Dzabh inilah menyembelih yang dipraktikkan di tempat kita -bukan nahr-.

Pertama, syarat halal sembelihan.

Syarat halalnya sembelihan yang terkait dengan ucapan adalah membaca basmalah.
Allah berfirman,

{وَلاَ تَأْكُلُواْ مِمَّا لَمْ يُذْكَرِ اسْمُ اللّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنَّهُ لَفِسْقٌ وَإِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ لَيُوحُونَ إِلَى أَوْلِيَآئِهِمْ لِيُجَادِلُوكُمْ وَإِنْ أَطَعْتُمُوهُمْ إِنَّكُمْ لَمُشْرِكُونَ }الأنعام121

“Janganlah kalian makan hewan yang tidak disebutkan nama Allah ketika menyembelih. Sesungguhnya itu hewan yang tidak halal.” (QS. Al-An’am: 121)

Di ayat yang lain, Allah memerintahkan untuk makan hewan yang dibacakan basamalah ketika menyembelih:

{فَكُلُواْ مِمَّا ذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللّهِ عَلَيْهِ إِن كُنتُمْ بِآيَاتِهِ مُؤْمِنِينَ }الأنعام118

“Makanlah binatang yang disebutkan nama Allah ketika menyembelihnya, jika kalian orang yang beriman kepada ayat-ayat-Nya.” (QS. Al-An’am: 118).

Orang yang menyembelih dengan membaca basmalah sebelum dia melukai leher hewan yang hendak disembelih, maka hewannya halal dimakan. Dan jika diniatkan untuk berqurban maka bernilai sebagai ibadah qurban yang sah.

Karena itu, membaca basmalah merupakan ucapan yang paling penting ketika menyembelih. Sehingga perlu diperhatikan oleh para jagal, agar jangan sampai lupa atau tidak membaca apapun. Ingat, taruhannya, hewan yang disembelih bisa menjadi bangkai.

Kedua, dianjurkan untuk mengikrarkan kepemilikan hewan qurasban.

Hal ini dicontoh oleh Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, sebagaimana dikisahkan oleh Abu Rafi’ radhiyallahu ‘anhu,
“Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam ketika hendak berqurban, beliau membeli dua kambing yang gemuk, putih belang hitam. Setelah selesai shalat, dan berkhutbah, beliau mendatangi salah satu kambingnya dan beliau sembelih sendiri dengan pisau, ketika menyembelih beliau mengucapkan:

اللَّهُمَّ هَذَا عَنْ أُمَّتِي جَمِيعًا مِمَّنْ شَهِدَ لَكَ بِالتَّوْحِيدِ وَشَهِدَ لِي بِالْبَلَاغِ

Ya Allah, ini qurban dariku dan dari semua umatku yang bersaksi mentauhidkan-Mu, dan bersaksi bahwa aku yang menyampaikan risalah.

Selanjutnya, beliau mendatangi kambing kedua. Ketika menyembelih beliau mengucapkan:

هَذَا عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ

Ini qurban dari Muhammad dan keluarga Muhammad.

Kemudian beliau sedekah kedua hewan qurban itu kepada orang miskin, dan beliau juga makan dan beliau berikan kepada keluarganya. (HR. Ahmad 27190).

Dalam riwayat lain, dari Jabir bin Abdillah radhiyallahu ‘anhuma, bahwa beliau mengikuti shalat idul adha bersama Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam di lapangan. Setelah selesai berkhutbah, beliau turun dari mimbar dan mendatangi kambing qurban beliau. Lalu Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam menyembelihnya dengan tangannya, sambil mengucapkan:

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ، وَاللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ، هَذَا عَنِّي، وَعَمَّنْ لَمْ يُضَحِّ مِنْ أُمَّتِي

Bismillah, wallahu akbar, ini qurban dariku dan dari umatku yang tidak berqurban. (HR. Ahmad 14837, Abu Dawud 2810).

رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

“Ya Allah, terimalah amal kami. Sesungguhnya Engkau Maha Mendengar lagi Maha Mengetahui.” (QS. Al-Baqarah: 127).

Doa semacam ini pernah dipraktekkan oleh Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam sewaktu beliau berqurban. Aisyah mengisahkan:
“Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam berqurban dengan kambing bertanduk, berdiri dengan kaki belang hitam, duduk di atas perut belang hitam, melihat dengan mata belang hitam. Kemudian beliau menyuruh Aisyah untuk mengambilkan pisau dan mengasahnya. Setelah kambingnya beliau baringkan, beliau membaca:

باسم الله اللهم تقبل من محمد وآل محمد ومن أمة محمد

“Bismillah, Ya Allah, terimalah qurban dari Muhammad dan keluarga Muhammad, serta dari umat Muhammad – shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam – .” (HR. Muslim no. 1967)

Berikut video tata cara Kurban

Beberapa adab yang perlu diperhatikan:

1. Hendaknya yang menyembelih adalah shohibul kurban sendiri, jika dia mampu. Jika tidak maka bisa diwakilkan orang lain, dan shohibul kurban disyariatkan untuk ikut menyaksikan.

2. Gunakan pisau yang setajam mungkin. Semakin tajam, semakin baik. Ini berdasarkan hadis dari Syaddad bin Aus radhiallahu ‘anhu, bahwa Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda,

إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَتَبَ الإِحْسَانَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ فَإِذَا قَتَلْتُمْ فَأَحْسِنُوا الْقِتْلَةَ وَإِذَا ذَبَحْتُمْ فَأَحْسِنُوا الذَّبْح وَ ليُحِدَّ أَحَدُكُمْ شَفْرَتَهُ فَلْيُرِحْ ذَبِيحَتَهُ

 “Sesungguhnya Allah mewajibkan berbuat ihsan dalam segala hal. Jika kalian membunuh maka bunuhlah dengan ihsan, jika kalian menyembelih, sembelihlah dengan ihsan. Hendaknya kalian mempertajam pisaunya dan menyenangkan sembelihannya.” (HR. Muslim).

3. Tidak mengasah pisau dihadapan hewan yang akan disembelih. Karena ini akan menyebabkan dia ketakutan sebelum disembelih. Berdasarkan hadis dari Ibnu Umar radhiallahu ‘anhuma,

أَمَرَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِحَدِّ الشِّفَارِ ، وَأَنْ تُوَارَى عَنِ الْبَهَائِمِ

“Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam memerintahkan untuk mengasah pisau, tanpa memperlihatkannya kepada hewan.” (HR. Ahmad, Ibnu Majah ).

Dalam riwayat yang lain, Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam pernah melewati seseorang yang meletakkan kakinya di leher kambing, kemudian dia menajamkan pisaunya, sementar binatang itu melihatnya. Lalu beliau bersabda (artinya): “Mengapa engkau tidak menajamkannya sebelum ini ?! Apakah engkau ingin mematikannya sebanyak dua kali?!.” (HR. Ath-Thabrani dengan sanad sahih).

4. Menghadapkan hewan ke arah kiblat.

5. Membaringkan hewan di atas lambung sebelah kiri.
Imam An-Nawawi mengatakan,
Terdapat beberapa hadis tentang membaringkan hewan (tidak disembelih dengan berdiri, pen.) dan kaum muslimin juga sepakat dengan hal ini. Para ulama sepakat, bahwa cara membaringkan hewan yang benar adalah ke arah kiri. Karena ini akan memudahkan penyembelih untuk memotong hewan dengan tangan kanan dan memegangi leher dengan tangan kiri. (Mausu’ah Fiqhiyah Kuwaitiyah, 21:197).

6. Menginjakkan kaki di leher hewan. Sebagaimana disebutkan dalam hadis dari Anas bin Malik radhiallahu ‘anhu, beliau mengatakan,

ضحى رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم بكبشين أملحين، فرأيته واضعاً قدمه على صفاحهما يسمي ويكبر

Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam berkurban dengan dua ekor domba. Aku lihat beliau meletakkan meletakkan kaki beliau di leher hewan tersebut, kemudian membaca basmalah …. (HR. Bukhari dan Muslim).

7. Bacaan ketika hendak menyembelih.
Beberapa saat sebelum menyembelih, harus membaca basmalah. Ini hukumnya wajib, menurut pendapat yang kuat. Lihat video di atas

Berikut ini bacaannya

ِسْمِ اللَّهِ الَّذِى لاَ يَضُرُّمَعَ اسْمِهِ شَىْءٌ فِى اْلأَرْضِ وَلاَفِى السَّمَاءِ وَهُوَ السَّمِيْعُ الْعَلِيْمُ
بسم الله الله أكبر
لا إله إلاالله الله أكبر

8. Dianjurkan untuk membaca takbir (Allahu akbar) setelah membaca basmalah
Dari Anas bin Malik radhiallahu ‘anhu,

عن أنس قال: ضحى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بكبشين أملحين أقرنين ذبحهما بيده وسمى وكبر وضع رجله على صفاحهما

bahwa Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam pernah menyembelih dua ekor domba bertanduk,…beliau sembelih dengan tangannya, dan baca basmalah serta bertakbir…. (HR. Al Bukhari dan Muslim).

9. Pada saat menyembelih dianjurkan menyebut nama orang yang jadi tujuan dikurbankannya herwan tersebut.
Dari Jabir bin Abdillah radhiallahu ‘anhuma, bahwa suatu ketika didatangkan seekor domba. Kemudian Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam menyembelih dengan tangan beliau. Ketika menyembelih beliau mengucapkan, ‘bismillah wallaahu akbar, ini kurban atas namaku dan atas nama orang yang tidak berkurban dari umatku.’” (HR. Abu Daud, At-Turmudzi dan disahihkan Al-Albani).

Setelah membaca bismillah Allahu akbar, dibolehkan juga apabila disertai dengan bacaan berikut:

hadza minka wa laka.” (HR. Abu Dawud, no. 2795) Atau
hadza minka wa laka ’anni atau ’an fulan (disebutkan nama shohibul kurban). Jika yang menyembelih bukan shohibul kurban atau

Berdoa agar Allah menerima kurbannya dengan doa, ”Allahumma taqabbal minni atau min fulan (disebutkan nama shohibul kurban).”

Catatan: Bacaan takbir dan menyebut nama sohibul kurban hukumnya sunnah, tidak wajib. Sehingga kurban tetap sah meskipun ketika menyembelih tidak membaca takbir dan menyebut nama sohibul kurban.

10. Disembelih dengan cepat untuk meringankan apa yang dialami hewan kurban.
Sebagaimana hadis dari Syaddad bin Aus di atas.

11. Pastikan bahwa bagian tenggorokan, kerongkongan, dua urat leher (kanan-kiri) telah pasti terpotong dengan sekali tebas (dua kali gesek, satu ke depan satu ke belakang).

  1. Terputusnya tenggorokan, kerongkongan, dan dua urat leher. Ini adalah keadaan yang terbaik. Jika terputus empat hal ini maka sembelihannya halal menurut semua ulama.
  2. Terputusnya tenggorokan, kerongkongan, dan salah satu urat leher. Sembelihannya benar, halal, dan boleh dimakan, meskipun keadaan ini derajatnya di bawah kondisi yang pertama.
  3. Terputusnya tenggorokan dan kerongkongan saja, tanpa dua urat leher. Status sembelihannya sah dan halal, menurut sebagian ulama, dan merupakan pendapat yang lebih kuat dalam masalah ini. Dalilnya adalah sabda Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam,

ما أنهر الدم وذكر اسم الله عليه فكل، ليس السن والظفر

“Selama mengalirkan darah dan telah disebut nama Allah maka makanlah. Asal tidak menggunakan gigi dan kuku.” (HR. Al Bukhari dan Muslim).

12. Sebagian ulama menganjurkan agar membiarkan kaki kanan bergerak, sehingga hewan lebih cepat meregang nyawa.
Imam An-Nawawi mengatakan, “Dianjurkan untuk membaringkan sapi dan kambing ke arah kiri. Demikian keterangan dari Al-Baghawi dan ulama Madzhab Syafi’i. Mereka mengatakan, “Kaki kanannya dibiarkan…(Al-Majmu’ Syarh Muhadzab, 8:408)

13. Tidak boleh mematahkan leher sebelum hewan benar-benar mati.
Para ulama menegaskan, perbuatan semacam ini hukumnya dibenci. Karena akan semakin menambah rasa sakit hewan kurban. Demikian pula menguliti binatang, memasukkannya ke dalam air panas dan semacamnya. Semua ini tidak boleh dilakukan kecuali setelah dipastikan hewan itu benar-benar telah mati.

Dinyatakan dalam Fatawa Syabakah Islamiyah, “Para ulama menegaskan makruhnya memutus kepala ketika menyembalih dengan sengaja. Khalil bin Ishaq dalam Mukhtashar-nya untuk Fiqih Maliki, ketika menyebutkan hal-hal yang dimakruhkan pada saat menyembelih, beliau mengatakan,

“Diantara yang makruh adalah secara sengaja memutus kepala” (Fatawa Syabakah Islamiyah, no. 93893).
Pendapat yang kuat bahwa hewan yang putus kepalanya ketika disembelih hukumnya halal.
Imam Al-Mawardi –salah satu ulama Madzhab Syafi’i– mengatakan, “Diriwayatkan dari Imran bin Husain radhiallahu ‘anhu, bahwa beliau ditanya tentang menyembelih burung sampai putus lehernya? Sahabat Imran menjawab, ‘boleh dimakan.”

Imam Syafi’i mengatakan,

فإذا ذبحها فقطع رأسها فهي ذكية

“Jika ada orang menyembelih, kemudian memutus kepalanya maka statusnya sembelihannya yang sah” (Al-Hawi Al-Kabir, 15:224).

Allahu a’lam

DOA MENYEMBELIH QURBAN

Alhamdulillah, segala puji bagi Allah. Shalawat dan salam semoga terlimpah kepada Nabi Kita Muhammad Shallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam, keluarga dan para sahabatnya, serta umatnya yang mengikuti mereka dengan baik hingga hari kiamat.

Setiap orang yang berkurban tentunya berharap ibadahnya tersebut diterima oleh Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala. Di samping memperhatikan jenis hewan kurban, umur dan kondisi hewan kurban yang selamat dari cacat, kita juga harus memperhatikan tatacara penyembelihannya. Di antaranya, memperhatikan bacaan saat menyembelih. Apa dzikir atau doa yang diajarkan oleh syariat saat menyembelih hewan kurban?

Pada ringkasnya, bagi orang yang ingin menyembelih hewan qurban disunnahkan baginya saat akan menyembelih untuk membaca:

بِسْمِ اللَّه اللَّهُمَّ  وَاللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اَللَّهُمَّ هَذَا مِنْكَ وَلَكَ، هَذَا عَنِّي

Artinya: (Dengan Nama Allah, Allah Maha Besar, Ya Allah ini dari-Mu dan untuk-Mu, ini kurban dariku).

Jika ia menyembelihkan hewan qurban milik orang lain, ia membaca:

بِسْمِ اللَّه اللَّهُمَّ  وَاللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اَللَّهُمَّ هَذَا مِنْكَ وَلَكَ، هَذَا عَنْ فُلَانٍ

Dengan Nama Allah, Allah Maha Besar, Ya Allah ini dari-Mu dan untuk-Mu, ini kurban dariku.” Di tambah:

اَللَّهُمَّ تَقَبَّلْ مِنْ فُلَانٍ وَآلِ فُلَانٍ

“Ya Allah, terimalah kurban dari fulan dan keluarga fulan,” (dengan menyebut namanya).

Namun yang wajib dari bacaan ini adalah membacaBasmalah (Bismillah). Jika sudah membacanya, maka sah penyembelihan hewan qurban tersebut walau tidak menambah bacaan selainnya. Adapun kalimat-kalimat sesudahnya hanya anjuran, bukan wajib. Hal ini didasarkan kepada firman Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala,

فَكُلُواْ مِمَّا ذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللّهِ عَلَيْهِ إِن كُنتُمْ بِآيَاتِهِ مُؤْمِنِينَ

Maka makanlah binatang-binatang (yang halal) yang disebut nama Allah ketika menyembelihnya, jika kamu beriman kepada ayat-ayat-Nya.” (QS. Al-An’am: 118)

وَلاَ تَأْكُلُواْ مِمَّا لَمْ يُذْكَرِ اسْمُ اللّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنَّهُ لَفِسْقٌ

Dan janganlah kamu memakan binatang-binatang yang tidak disebut nama Allah ketika menyembelihnya.  Sesungguhnya perbuatan yang semacam itu adalah suatu kefasikan.” (QS. Al-An’am: 121)

Diriwayatkan dalam Shahihain, dari Anas bin MalikRadhiyallahu ‘Anhu, ia berkata:

ضَحَّى النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِكَبْشَيْنِ أَمْلَحَيْنِ أَقْرَنَيْنِ ذَبَحَهُمَا بِيَدِهِ وَسَمَّى وَكَبَّرَ وَوَضَعَ رِجْلَهُ عَلَى صِفَاحِهِمَا

Nabi Shallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam berkurban dengan ekor domba jantan yang dominasi warna putih dan bertanduk. Beliau menyembelihnya dengan tangannya sendiri, membaca basmalah dan bertakbir serta meletakkan kakinya di atas samping lehernya.”

Imam Muslim meriwayatkan dari ‘Aisyah Radhiyallahu ‘Anha, Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam memerintahkan untuk membawakan satu ekor kibas bertanduk yang hitam kakinya, hitam bagian perutnya, dan hitam di sekitar kedua matanya. Lalu dibawakan kepada beliau untuk beliau sembelih sendiri. Beliau berkata kepada ‘Aisyah, “Wahai ‘Aisyah, ambilkan sebilah pisau.” Kemudian beliau bersabda, “Asahlah pisau itu dengan batu.” ‘Aisyah pun mengerjakan. Kemudian beliau mengambil pisau dan mengambil kibas tersebut, lalu beliau membaringkannya dan menyembelihnya. Kemudian beliau berucap:

بِسْمِ اللَّه اللَّهُمَّ تَقَبَّلْ مِنْ مُحَمَّد وَآل مُحَمَّد وَمِنْ أُمَّة مُحَمَّد

“Dengan nama Allah, ya Allah terimalah dari Muhammad dan keluarga Muhammad, serta dari umat Muhammad.” Kemudian beliau menyembelihnya.

بسم الله والله أكبر هذا عني وعمن لم يضح من أمتي.

Imam Nawawi rahimahullah menjelaskan tentang maksudnya, yaitu beliau membaringkannya dan menyembelihnya sambil membaca kalimat di atas. (Lihat Syarah Muslim li al-Nawawi dalam keterangan hadits di atas)

Dan diriwayatkan oleh Imam Tirmidzi, dari Jabir bin AbdillahRadhiyallahu ‘Anhu berkata: “Aku menyaksikan Shalat Idul Adha di musholla bersama Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam.Ketika beliau selesai khutbah beliau turun dari mimbar dan dibawakan kepada beliau seekor domba jantan lalu Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam menyembelihnya sambil mengucapkan:

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ هَذَا عَنِّي وَعَمَّنْ لَمْ يُضَحِّ مِنْ أُمَّتِي

Dengan nama Allah dan Allah Maha Besar, ini dariku dan dari setiap orang yang tidak berkurban dari umatku.” (Dishahihkan oleh-Al-albani rahimahullah dalam Shahih al-Tirmidzi)

Terdapat tambahan dalam sebagian riwayat,

اَللَّهُمَّ إِنَّ هَذَا مِنْكَ وَلَكَ

Ya Allah, sesungguhnya ini dari-Mu dan untuk-Mu.” (Lihat: Irwa’ al-Ghalil, no. 1138 dan 1152)

Maksud, Allahumma Minka (Ya Allah, sesungguhnya ini dari-Mu): hewan kurban ini adalah rizki pemberian-Mu yang sampai kepadaku dari Engkau. Sedangkan Wa Laka (dan untuk-Mu) adalah ikhlas untuk-Mu

Selametan Hari Ke-3, 7, 40, 100, Setahun, dan 1000 Hari

HUKUM SELAMATAN HARI KE-3, 7, 40, 100, SETAHUN, DAN 1000 HARI

Hukum selamatan hari ke-3, 7, 40, 100, setahun, dan 1000 hari diperbolehkan dalam syari’at Islam. Keterangan diambil dari kitab “Al-Hawi lil Fatawi” karya Imam Jalaluddin Abdurrahman As-Suyuthi jilid 2 halaman 178 sebagai berikut:

قال الامام أحمد بن حنبل رضي الله عنه فى كتاب الزهد له : حدثنا هاشم بن القاسم قال: حدثنا الأشجعى عن سفيان قال
قال طاوس: ان الموتى يفتنون فى قبورهم سبعا فكانوا يستحبون أن يطعموا عنهم تلك الأيام , قال الحافظ ألو نعيم فى الجنة: حدثنا أبو بكر بن مالك حدثنا عبد الله بن أحمد بن حنبل حدثنا أبى حدثنا هاشم بن القاسم حدثنا الأشجعى عن سفيان قال: قال طاوس: ان الموتى يفتنون فى قبورهم سبعا فكانوا يستحبون أن يطعموا عنهم تلك الأيام

Artinya:
“Telah berkata Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal ra di dalam kitabnya yang menerangkan tentang kitab zuhud: Telah menceritakan kepadaku Hasyim bin Qasim sambil berkata: Telah menceritakan kepadaku al-Asyja’i dari Sufyan sambil berkata: TelaH berkata Imam Thawus (ulama besar zaman Tabi’in, wafat kira-kira tahun 110 H / 729 M): Sesungguhnya orang-orang yang meninggal akan mendapat ujian dari Allah dalam kuburan mereka selama 7 hari. Maka, disunnahkan bagi mereka yang masih hidup mengadakan jamuan makan (sedekah) untuk orang-orang yang sudah meninggal selama hari-hari tersebut.

Telah berkata al-Hafiz Abu Nu’aim di dalam kitab Al-Jannah: Telah menceritakan kepadaku Abu Bakar bin Malik, telah menceritakan kepadaku Abdullah bin Ahmad bin Hanbal, telah menceritakan kepadaku Ubay, telah menceritakan kepadaku Hasyim bin al-Qasim, telah menceritakan kepadaku al-Asyja’i dari Sufyan sambil berkata: Telah berkata Imam Thawus: Sesungguhnya orang-orang yang meninggal akan mendapat ujian dari Allah dalam kuburan mereka selama 7 hari. Maka, disunnahkan bagi mereka yang masih hidup mengadakan jamuan makan (sedekah) untuk orang-orang yang sudah meninggal selama hari-hari tersebut.”

Selain itu, di dalam kitab yang sama jilid 2 halaman 194 diterangkan sebagai berikut:

ان سنة الاطعام سبعة أيام بلغنى أنهامستمر الى الأن بمكة و المدينة فالظاهر أنها لم تترك من عهد الصحابة الى الأن و انهم أخذوها خلفا عن سلف الى الصدر الأول

ِArtinya:
“Sesungguhnya, kesunnahan memberikan sedekah makanan selama tujuh hari merupakan perbuatan yang tetap berlaku sampai sekarang (yaitu masa Imam Suyuthi abad ke-9 H) di Mekkah dan Madinah. Yang jelas kebiasaan tersebut tidak pernah ditinggalkan sejak masa sahabat sampai sekarang, dan tradisi tersebut diambil dari ulama salaf sejak generasi pertama, yaitu sahabat.”

Tambahan:
=======
Anjuran Selamatan Kematian:
http://www.sarkub.com/2011/anjuran-untuk-tahlilan-7-hari-berturut-turut/

Mengapa para ulama mengajarkan kepada umat Islam agar selalu mendoakan keluarganya yang telah meninggal dunia selama 7 hari berturut-turut ?

Telah banyak beredar dari kalangan salafi wahhabi yang menyatakan bahwa tradisi tahlilan sampai tujuh hari diadopsi dari adat kepercayaan agama Hindu. Benarkah anggapan dan asumsi mereka ini?
Sungguh anggapan mereka salah besar dan vonis yang tidak berdasar sama sekali. Justru ternyata tradisi tahlilan selama tujuh hari dengan menghidangkan makanan, merupakan tradisi para sahabat Nabi Muhammad Saw dan para tabi’in.

Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, seorang ahli hadits kenamaan mengatakan bahwa beliau mendapatkan riwayat dari Hasyim bin al-Qasim, yang mana beliau meriwayatkan dari Al-Asyja’i, yang beliau sendiri mendengar dari Sofyan, bahwa Imam Thawus bin Kaisan radliyallahu ‘anhu pernah berkata :

إن الموتى يفتنون في قبورهم سبعا، فكانوا يستحبون أن يطعم عنهم تلك الأيام

“Sesungguhnya orang mati difitnah (diuji dengan pertanyaan malaikat) didalam quburnya selama 7 hari, dan “mereka” menganjurkan (mensunnahkan) agar memberikan makan (pahalanya) untuk yang meninggal selama 7 hari tersebut”.

Riwayat ini sebutkan oleh Imam Ahmad Ahmad bin Hanbal didalam az-Zuhd [1]. Imam Abu Nu’aim al-Ashbahani (w. 430 H) juga menyebutkannya didalam Hilyatul Auliya’ wa Thabaqatul Ashfiyah.[2] Sedangkan Thawus bin Kaisan al-Haulani al-Yamani adalah seorang tabi’in (w. 106 H) ahli zuhud, salah satu Imam yang paling luas keilmuannya. [3] Ibnu Hajar al-Haitami (w. 974) dalam al-Fatawa al-Fiqhiyyah al-Kubraa dan Imam al-Hafidz as-Suyuthi (w. 911 H) dalam al-Hawil lil-Fatawi mengatakan bahwa dalam riwayat diatas mengandung pengertian bahwa kaum Muslimin telah melakukannya pada masa Rasulullah, sedangkan Rasulullah mengetahui dan taqrir terhadap perkara tersebut. Dikatakan (qil) juga bahwa para sahabat melakukannya namun tidak sampai kepada Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Atas hal ini kemudian dikatakan bahwa khabar ini berasal dari seluruh sahabat maka jadilah itu sebagai Ijma’, dikatakan (qil) hanya sebagian shahabat saja, dan masyhur dimasa mereka tanpa ada yang mengingkarinya. [4]

Ini merupakan anjuran (kesunnahan) untuk mengasihi (merahmati) mayyit yang baru meninggal selama dalam ujian didalam kuburnya dengan cara melakukan kenduri shadaqah makan selama 7 hari yang pahalanya untuk mayyit. Kegiatan ini telah dilakukan oleh para sahabat, difatwakan oleh mereka. Sedangkan ulama telah berijma’ bahwa pahala hal semacam itu sampai dan bermanfaat bagi mayyit.[5] Kegiatan semacam ini juga berlangsung pada masa berikutnya, sebagaimana yang dikatakan oleh al-Imam al-Hafidz as-Suyuthiy ;

“Sesungguhnya sunnah memberikan makan selama 7 hari, telah sampai kepadaku (al-Hafidz) bahwa sesungguhnya amalan ini berkelanjutan dilakukan sampai sekarang (masa al-Hafidz) di Makkah dan Madinah. Maka secara dhahir, amalan ini tidak pernah di tinggalkan sejak masa para shahabat Nabi hingga masa kini (masa al-Hafidz as-Suyuthi), dan sesungguhnya generasi yang datang kemudian telah mengambil amalan ini dari pada salafush shaleh hingga generasai awal Islam. Dan didalam kitab-kitab tarikh ketika menuturkan tentang para Imam, mereka mengatakan “manusia (umat Islam) menegakkan amalan diatas kuburnya selama 7 hari dengan membaca al-Qur’an’. [6]

Shadaqah seperti yang dilakukan diatas berlandaskan hadits Nabi yang banyak disebutkan dalam berbagai riwayat. [7] Lebih jauh lagi dalam hadits mauquf dari Sayyidina Umar bin Khaththab, disebutkan dalam al-Mathalib al-‘Aliyah (5/328) lil-Imam al-Hafidz Ibnu Hajar al-Asqalani (w. 852) sebagai berikut :

قال أحمد بن منيع حدثنا يزيد بن هارون حدثنا حماد بن سلمة عن علي بن زيد عن الحسن عن الحنف بن قيس قال كنت أسمع عمر رَضِيَ الله عَنْه يقول لا يدخل أحد من قريش في باب إلا دخل معه ناس فلا أدري ما تأويل قوله حتى طعن عمر رَضِيَ الله عَنْه فأمر صهيبا رَضِيَ الله عَنْه أن يصلي بالناس ثلاثا وأمر أن يجعل للناس طعاماً فلما رجعوا من الجنازة جاؤوا وقد وضعت الموائد فأمسك الناس عنها للحزن الذي هم فيه فجاء العباس بن عبد المطلب رَضِيَ الله عَنْه فقال يا أيها الناس قد مات الحديث وسيأتي إن شاء الله تعالى بتمامه في مناقب عمر رَضِيَ الله عَنْه

“Ahmad bin Mani’ berkata, telah menceritakan kepada kami Yazid bin Harun, menceritakan kepada kami Hammad bin Salamah dari ‘Ali bin Zayd, dari al-Hasan, dari al-Ahnaf bin Qays, ia berkata : aku pernah mendengar ‘Umar radliyallahu ‘anh mengatakan, seseorang dari Quraisy tidak akan masuk pada sebuah pintu kecuali seseorang masuk menyertainya, maka aku tidak mengerti apa yang maksud perkataannya sampai ‘Umar radliyallahu ‘anh di tikam, maka beliau memerintahkan Shuhaib radliyallahu ‘anh agar shalat bersama manusia selama tiga hari, dan juga memerintahkan agar membuatkan makanan untuk manusia. Setelah mereka kembali (pulang) dari mengantar jenazah, dan sungguh makanan telah dihidangkan, maka manusia tidak mau memakannya karena sedih mereka pada saat itu, maka sayyidina ‘Abbas bin Abdul Muththalib radliyallahu ‘anh datang, kemudian berkata ; wahai.. manusia sungguh telah wafat .. (al-hadits), dan InsyaAllah selengkapnya dalam Manaqib ‘Umar radliyallah ‘anh”.

Hikmah dari hadits ini adalah bahwa adat-istiadat amalan seperti Tahlilan bukan murni dari bangsa Indonesia, melainkan sudah pernah dicontohkan sejak masa sahabat, serta para masa tabi’in dan seterusnya. Karena sudah pernah dicontohkan inilah maka kebiasaan tersebut masih ada hingga kini.

Riwayat diatas juga disebutkan dengan lengkap dalam beberapa kitab antara lain Ithaful Khiyarah (2/509) lil-Imam Syihabuddin Ahmad bin Abi Bakar al-Bushiriy al-Kinani (w. 840).

وعن الأحنف بن قيس قال: “كنت أسمع عمر بن الحنطاب- رضي الله عنه- يقول: لا يدخل رجل من قريش في باب إلا دخل معه ناس. فلا أدري ما تأويل قوله، حتى طعن عمر فأمر صهيبا أن يصلي بالناس ثلاثا، وأمر بأن يجعل للناس طعاما، فلما رجعوا من الجنازة جاءوا وقد وضعت الموائد فأمسك الناس عنها للحزن الذي هم فيه، فجاء العباس بن عبد المطلب قال: يا أيها الناس، قد مات رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – فأكلنا بعده وشربنا، ومات أبو بكر فأكلنا بعده وشربنا، أيها الناس كلوا من هذا الطعام. فمد يده ومد الناس أيديهم فأكلوا، فعرفت تأويل قوله “.رواه أحمد بن منيع بسند فيه علي بن زيد بن جدعان

“Dan dari al-Ahnaf bin Qays, ia berkata : aku mendengar ‘Umar bin Khaththab radliyallahu ‘anh mengatakan, seseorang dari Quraisy tidak akan masuk pada sebuah pintu kecuali manusia masuk bersamanya. Maka aku tidak maksud dari perkataannya, sampai ‘Umar di tikam kemudian memerintahkan kepada Shuhaib agar shalat bersama manusia dan membuatkan makanan hidangan makan untuk manusia selama tiga hari. Ketika mereka telah kembali dari mengantar jenazah, mereka datang dan sungguh makanan telah dihidangkan namun mereka tidak menyentuhnya karena kesedihan pada diri mereka. Maka datanglah sayyidina ‘Abbas bin Abdul Muththalib, seraya berkata : “wahai manusia, sungguh Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam telah wafat, dan kita semua makan dan minum setelahnya, Abu Bakar juga telah wafat dan kita makan serta minum setelahnya, wahai manusia.. makanlah oleh kalian dari makanan ini, maka sayyidina ‘Abbas mengulurkan tanggan (mengambil makanan), diikuti oleh yang lainnya kemudian mereka semua makan. Maka aku (al-Ahnaf) mengetahui maksud dari perkataannya. Ahmad bin Mani telah meriwayatkannya dengan sanad didalamnya yakni ‘Ali bin Zayd bin Jud’an”.

Disebutkan juga Majma’ az-Zawaid wa Manba’ul Fawaid (5/159) lil-Imam Nuruddin bin ‘Ali al-Haitsami (w. 807 H), dikatakan bahwa Imam ath-Thabrani telah meriwayatkannya, dan didalamnya ada ‘Ali bin Zayd, dan haditsnya hasan serta rijal-rijalnya shahih ; Kanzul ‘Ummal fiy Sunanil Aqwal wa al-Af’al lil-Imam ‘Alauddin ‘Ali al-Qadiriy asy-Syadili (w. 975 H) ; Thabaqat al-Kubra (4/21) lil-Imam Ibni Sa’ad (w. 230 H) ; Ma’rifatu wa at-Tarikh (1/110) lil-Imam Abu Yusuf al-Farisi al-Fasawi (w. 277 H) ; Tarikh Baghdad (14/320) lil-Imam Abu Bakar Ahmad al-Khathib al-Baghdadi (w. 463 H).

Imam Suyuthi Rahimahullah dalam kitab Al-Hawi li al-Fatawi-nya mengtakan :

قال طاووس : ان الموتى يفتنون في قبورهم سبعا فكانوا يستحبون ان يطعموا عنهم تلك الايام

“ Thowus berkata: “Sungguh orang-orang yang telah meninggal dunia difitnah dalam kuburan mereka selama tujuh hari, maka mereka (sahabt Nabi) gemar (bersedekah) menghidangkan makanan sebagai ganti dari mereka yang telah meninggal dunia pada hari-hari tersebut “.

Sementara dalam riwayat lain :

عن عبيد بن عمير قال : يفتن رجلان مؤمن ومنافق, فاما المؤمن فيفتن سبعا واماالمنافق فيفتن اربعين صباحا

“ Dari Ubaid bin Umair ia berkata: “Dua orang yakni seorang mukmin dan seorang munafiq memperoleh fitnah kubur. Adapun seorang mukmin maka ia difitnah selama tujuh hari, sedangkan seorang munafiq disiksa selama empat puluh hari “.

Dalam menjelaskan dua atsar tersebut imam Suyuthi menyatakan bahwa dari sisi riwayat, para perawi atsar Thowus termasuk kategori perawi hadits-hadits shohih.
Thowus yang wafat tahun 110 H sendiri dikenal sebagai salah seorang generasi pertama ulama negeri Yaman dan pemuka para tabi’in yang sempat menjumpai lima puluh orang sahabat Nabi Saw. Sedangkan Ubaid bin Umair yang wafat tahun 78 H yang dimaksud adalah al-Laitsi yaitu seorang ahli mauidhoh hasanah pertama di kota Makkah dalam masa pemerintahan Umar bin Khoththob Ra.

Menurut imam Muslim beliau dilahirkan di zaman Nabi Saw bahkan menurut versi lain disebutkan bahwa beliau sempat melihat Nabi Saw. Maka berdasarkan pendapat ini beliau termasuk salah seorang sahabat Nabi Saw.

Sementara bila ditinjau dalam sisi diroyahnya, sebgaimana kaidah yang diakui ulama ushul dan ulama hadits bahwa: “Setiap riwayat seorang sahabat Nabi Saw yang ma ruwiya mimma la al-majalla ar-ra’yi fiih (yang tidak bisa diijtihadi), semisal alam barzakh dan akherat, maka itu hukumnya adalah Marfu’ (riwayat yang sampai pada Nabi Saw), bukan Mauquf (riwayat yang terhenti pada sahabat dan tidak sampai kepada Nabi Saw).

Menurut ulama ushul dan hadits, makna ucapan Thowus ;

ان الموتى يفتنون في قبورهم سبعا فكانوا يستحبون ان يطعموا عنهم تلك الايام

berkata: “Sungguh orang-orang yang telah meninggal dunia difitnah dalam kuburan mereka selama tujuh hari, maka mereka (sahabt Nabi) gemar (bersedekah) menghidangkan makanan sebagai ganti dari mereka yang telah meninggal dunia pada hari-hari tersebut “, adalah para sahabat Nabi Saw telah melakukannya dan dilihat serta diakui keabsahannya oleh Nabi Saw sendiri.

(al-Hawi) li al-Fatawi, juz III hlm. 266-273, Imam As-Suyuthi).

Maka tradisi bersedekah selama mitung dino / tujuh hari atau empat puluh hari pasca kematian, merupakan warisan budaya dari para tabi’in dan sahabat Nabi Saw, bahkan telah dilihat dan diakui keabsahannya pula oleh beliau Nabi Muhammad Saw.

Wallahu A’lam.

[1] Lihat : Syarah ash-Shudur bisyarhi Hal al-Mautaa wal Qubur ; Syarah a-Suyuthi ‘alaa Shahih Muslim, Hasyiyah as-Suyuthi ‘alaa Sunan an-Nasaa’i dan al-Hafi lil-Fatawi lil-Imam al-Hafidz Jalaluddin as-Suyuthi ; Lawami’ al-Anwar al-Bahiyyah (2/9) lil-Imam Syamsuddin Muhammad as-Safarainy al-Hanbali (w. 1188 H) ; Sairus Salafush Shalihin (1/827) lil-Imam Isma’il bin Muhammad al-Ashbahani (w. 535 H) ; Imam al-Hafidz Hajar al-Asqalani (w. 852 H) didalam al-Mathalibul ‘Aliyah (834).

[2] Lihat : Hilyatul Auliya’ wa Thabaqatul Ashfiyaa’ lil-Imam Abu Nu’aim al-Ashbahaniy : “menceritakan kepada kami Abu Bakar bin Malik, menceritakan kepada kami Abdullah bin Ahmad bin Hanbal, menceritakan kepada kami ayahku (Ahmad bin Hanbal), menceritakan kepada kami Hisyam bin al-Qasim, menceritakan kepada kami al-Asyja’iy, dari Sufyan, ia berkata : Thawus telah berkata : “sesungguhnya orang mati di fitnah (diuji oleh malaikat) didalam kuburnya selama 7 hari, maka ‘mereka’ menganjurkan untuk melakukan kenduri shadaqah makan yang pahalanya untuk mayyit selama 7 hari tersebut”.

[3] Lihat : al-Wafi bil Wafiyaat (16/236) lil-Imam ash-Shafadi (w. 764 H), disebutkan bahwa ‘Amru bin Dinar berkata : “aku tidak pernah melihat yang seperti Thawus”. Dalam at-Thabaqat al-Kubra li-Ibni Sa’ad (w. 230 H), Qays bin Sa’ad berkata ; “Thawus bagi kami seperti Ibnu Siirin (sahabat) bagi kalian”.

[4] Lihat ; al-Fatawa al-Fiqhiyyah al-Kubra (2/30-31) lil-Imam Syihabuddin Syaikhul Islam Ibnu Hajar al-Haitami ; al-Hawi al-Fatawi (2/169) lil-Imam al-Hafidz Jalaluddin as-Suyuthiy.

[5] Lihat : Syarah Shahih Muslim (3/444) li-Syaikhil Islam Muhyiddin an-Nawawi asy-Syafi’i.

[6] Lihat : al-Hawi al-Fatawi (2/179) lil-Imam al-Hafidz Jalaluddin as-Suyuthi.

(Dikutip dan di tata ulang seperlunya dari Abi Firas dan Ibn Abdillah Al-Katiby)

Dinar and Dirham for Halal Trade




In
troduction

The return to a form of trading and business transactions which have blessing and spiritual benefit, along material gain, is the most pressing issue of our time.

The reason is that all forms of oppression, destruction of the natural resources of our planet and injustice between poor and rich, all are ultimately based upon the rule of usury and the dominant financial and economic ethos.

The return to a healthy and equitable way of conducting business has many stages and implies the restoration of many lost institutions and procedures which prevailed until the hegemony of the present usurious institutions.

The most significant step in this progress will be the recovering of a currency system of real money and the progressive abolition of symbolic money printed in paper and fictitious currency manipulated in speculative markets and gambling exchange markets.

The gold dinar and Silver dirham have been universally accepted means of exchange for thousands of years and are beginning to be recognised as the only way to return to sanity and fairness.

Simultaneously, the use of fully gold backed e-dinar in markets where the physical gold and silver coins are also in circulation, the formulas of investment for trading (qirad) shareholding for production (shirkat) and the trusted forms of representation with equitable profits (wakala and qafila) will accompany the restoration of Islamic Trade.

The consequences of this process will be many, we will see the creation of an Islamic Trade Bloc with a common currency, The Islamic Gold Dinar and Silver Dirham. Then, the reunification of the Muslim Ummah, the reshaping of the power balance in the world, the end of the dollar supremacy and the end of oligarchies of millionaires and billionaires, in favour of the poor and progress which will benefit the people, not the corporations.

We want to make a contribution and be part of this unstoppable historic change by having always a relevant news and interesting articles, documents and research on the subject.

History of the Dinar and Dirham

In the beginning the Muslims used gold and silver by weight and the dinar and dirhams that they used were made by the Persians.

The first dated coins that can be assigned to the Muslims are copies of silver dirhams of the Sassanian Yezdigird III, struck during the Khalifate of Uthman, radiy’allahu anhu. These coins differ from the original ones in that an Arabic inscription is found in the obverse margins, normally reading “in the Name of Allah”. Since then the writing in Arabic of the Name of Allah and parts of Qur’an on the coins became a custom in all mintings made by Muslims.

Under what was known as the coin standard of the Khalif Umar Ibn al-Khattab, the weight of 10 dirhams was equivalent to 7 dinars (mithqals)

In the year 75 (695 CE) the Khalifah Abdalmalik ordered Al-Hajjaj to mint the first dirhams, thus he established officially the standard of Umar Ibn al-Khattab. In the next year he ordered the dirhams to be minted in all the regions of the Dar al-Islam. He ordered that the coins be stamped with the sentence: “Allah is Unique, Allah is Eternal”. He ordered the removal of human figures and animals from the coins and that they be replaced with letters.

This command was then carried on throughout all the history of Islam. The dinar and the dirham were both round, and the writing was stamped in concentric circles. Typically on one side it was written the “tahlil” and the “tahmid”, that is, “la ilaha ill’Allah” and “alhamdulillah”; and on the other side was written the name of the Amir and the date. Later on it became common to introduce the blessings on the Prophet, salla’llahu alayhi wa sallam, and sometimes, ayats of the Qur’an.
Gold and silver coins remained official currency until the fall of the Khalifate. Since then, dozens of different paper currencies were made in each of the new postcolonial national states created from the dismemberment of Dar al-Islam.

Allah says in the Qur’an:

And amongst the People of the Book there are those who, if you were to entrust them with a treasure (qintar), he would return it to you. And amongst them is he who, if you were to entrust him with a dinar would not return it to you, unless you kept standing over him. Qur’an (3,75)

Qadi Abu Bakr Ibn al-Arabi, the greatest authority on Qur’anic Law wrote in his famous “Ahkam al-Qur’an” about this ayat:

“The benefit that can be taken from this is the prohibition of entrusting the People of the Book with goods”.

Qadi Abu Bakr said: “The question concerning entrusting property is legislated by the text of Qur’an.” This means that the ayat is a legal judgement of absolute validity and of the greatest importance to the deen.

Entrusting wealth to non-Muslims is not allowed, but furthermore, taking a non-Muslim as a partner outside Dar al-Islam (where we stand over them) is extremely restricted, because they might cheat or might use our wealth in forbidden transactions.

Since paper-money is a promise of payment, can it be permitted to trust the issuers while they hold the payment (our property) outside our jurisdiction? History has also demonstrated repeatedly that paper money has been a permanent instrument of default and cheating the Muslims. In addition, Islamic Law does not permit the use of a promise of payment as a medium of exchange.

What are the Dinar and Dirham


The Islamic Dinar
is a specific weight
of pure gold equivalent to
4.44 grammes.

The Islamic Dirham
is a specific weight
of pure silver equivalent to
3.11 grammes.

According to Islamic Law…

The Islamic Dinar is a specific weight of fine gold equivalent to 4.44 grams.

The Islamic Dirham is a specific weight of pure silver equivalent to 3.11 grams.

Umar Ibn al-Khattab established the known standard relationship between them based on their weights: “7 dinars must be equivalent to 10 dirhams.”

The Revelation undertook to mention them and attached many judgements to them, for example zakat, marriage, and hudud, etc., therefore within the Revelation they have to have a reality and specific measure for assessment [of zakat, etc.] upon which its judgements may be based rather than on the non-shari’i [other coins].

Know that there is consensus [ijma] since the beginning of Islam and the age of the Companions and the Followers that the dirham of the shari’ah is that of which ten weigh seven mithqals [weight of the dinar] of gold. . . The weight of a mithqal of gold is seventy-two grains of barley, so that the dirham which is seven-tenths of it is fifty and two-fifths grains. All these measurements are firmly established by consensus.” Ibn Khaldun, Al-Muqaddimah

How are the Islamic dinar used?

1.- The Islamic Dinar can be used to save because they are wealth in themselves.

2.- They are used to pay zakat and dowry as they are requisite within Islamic Law.

3.- They are used to buy and sell since they are a legitimate medium of exchange.

Uses of the Dinar and Dirham

Gold and silver are the most stable currency the world has ever seen

From the beginning of Islam until today, the value of the Islamic bimetallic currency has remained surprisingly stable in relation to basic consumable goods:

A chicken at the time of the Prophet, salla’llahu alaihi wa sallam, cost one dirham; today, 1,400 years later, a chicken costs approximately one dirham.

In 1,400 years inflation is zero.

Could we say the same about the dollar or any other paper currency in the last 25 years?

In the long term the bimetallic currency has proved to be the most stable currency the world has ever seen. It has survived, despite all the attempts by governments to transform it into a symbolic currency by imposing a nominal value different from its weight.

Reliability

Gold cannot be inflated by printing more of it; it cannot be devalued by government decree, and unlike paper currency it is an asset which does not depend upon anybody’s promise to pay.

Portability and anonymity of gold are both important, but the most significant fact is that gold is an asset that is no-one else´s liability.

All forms of paper assets: bonds, shares, and even bank deposits, are promises to repay money borrowed. Their value is dependent upon the investor’s belief that the promise will be fulfilled. As junk bonds and the Mexican peso have illustrated, a questionable promise soon loses value.

Gold is not like this. A piece of gold is independent of the financial system, and its worth is underwritten by 5,000 years of human experience.